US president Barack Obama has condemned the killing of five police officers, in what appears to be a coordinated attack, during a protest in Dallas.
Snipers apparently killed the Dallas officers during one of several US demonstrations against ongoing police brutality towards African-American men.
This comes after two black men, Philando Castile and Alton Sterling, were inexplicably shot and killed by police this week, less than 48 hours apart.
Criminologist, Dr Andrew Fall says African-Americans continue to suffer because of historic racial inequality.
It seems, if you are an African-American in the US, the meaning applied to your body often means you're a threat and you will be treated differently.— Dr Andrew Fall, senior researcher at Centre of Criminology UCT
It plays itself out in policing... Unfortunately, that involves applying meaning to different bodies, sexes and places.— Dr Andrew Fall, senior researcher at Centre of Criminology UCT
Despite this, Fall says it is difficult to categorise all law enforcement as demonstrating institutional racism, due to the wide range of 20 000 different US police forces.
Listen to the full conversation from The Midday Report with Stephen Grootes:
This article first appeared on 702 : African-Americans 'at the losing end' of US racial prejudice, says criminologist